How to Install Linux on a Chromebook

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Chromebooks are so simple to use and maintain that even a young child can handle them. However, if you want to push the envelope, you can install Linux. 

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While it doesn't cost any money to put a Linux operating system on a Chromebook, it is nonetheless a complex process and not for the feint of heart. Once you've finished our walkthrough, you'll be able to toggle between Linux and Chrome OS with a keyboard shortcut. 

MORE: Should I Buy a Chromebook? Buying Guide and Advice

For this process, we're going to use Crouton, a flavor of Linux which supports a wide-range of Chromebooks. 

Before You Start

1. Back up any personal data or documents you have stored on the Chromebook’s internal drive. While your Google Drive-stored content is backed up, anything in your downloads folder may not be, and the same is true for information stored locally in downloaded Android apps. 

2. Set aside some time. This is not a quick process, and took 36 minutes for me to complete.

3. Come up with three passwords for your new system, as this requires you to create a regular password, an encryption passphrase, and an account password for Linux.

How to Install Linux on a Chromebook

1. While the Chromebook is on, hold ESC + Refresh and then click the Power button. Your screen will go dark, and you can then release the keys.1 2601931517327380

2. Do not worry when you see a screen that says Chrome OS is missing or damaged, or one that asks you to insert a USB drive. Click CTRL + D.

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3. Press Enter, and expect to watch a series of processes happen while you sit back and wait. You’ll get a 30-second countdown to change your mind and then the computer will start Preparing for Developer Mode. This will take several minutes and erases any data on the Chromebook’s solid state drive.

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4. Watch as your screen displays multiple messages that explain that the system is moving to Developer Mode, which deletes all of your local files, which I mentioned above.img 5266

5. You'll see an OS Verification is Off screen. Continue to wait.

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6. Click Let's go, and then sign into your Google account and local network, as Developer Mode cleared your account and network information.img 5277

7. Open Chrome.chrome1

8. Navigate to this URL:


9. Click the URL next to "Chromium OS Universal Chroot Environment." A Crouton file will download.chrome3

10. Click Ctrl+Alt+T to open a terminal window tab.chrome4

11. Type "shell" (without the quotations) next to crosh> and hit Enter.chrome5

12. If you're using a touchscreen Chromebook, type "sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -e -t touch,xfce" next to "chronos@localhost / $" and hit enter.

If you're using a non-touchscreen Chromebook, type "sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -e -t xfce" instead, and hit Enter.chrome6

13. Enter a new password you'll use for Chromium and click Enter.chrome7


14. Verify your new password by entering it again, and click Enter.chrome8

15. Enter an encryption passphrase, which is essentially a second password, and click Enter.chrome9

16. Confirm that passphrase by entering it again, and click Enter.chrome11

17. Time to watch a lot of code fly across your screen, and it lasts a while.  You're waiting for a prompt that asks you to enter a username.chrome13

18. Type in a username for your Linux account and hit Enter when prompted.chrome14

19. Type in a third new password, which will be the password for your Linux account, and click Enter.chrome15

20. Retype that password to confirm, and click Enter.

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21. Type "sudo startxfce4" and hit Enter.

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22. You're now in Linux on your Chromebook!img 5282

23. You can move between Chrome OS and Linux with Ctrl+Alt+Shift+Back and Ctrl+Alt+Shift+Forward. If you don't see a Forward key (it's not on our PixelBook), you'll use Ctrl+Alt+Back and Ctrl+Alt+Refresh instead.


Author Bio
Henry T. Casey
Henry T. Casey,
After graduating from Bard College a B.A. in Literature, Henry T. Casey worked in publishing and product development at Rizzoli and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, respectively. Henry joined Tom's Guide and LAPTOP having written for The Content Strategist, Tech Radar and Patek Philippe International Magazine. He divides his free time between going to live concerts, listening to too many podcasts, and mastering his cold brew coffee process. Content rules everything around him.
Henry T. Casey, on
Add a comment
  • Anonymous Says:

    It works, apart from the fact that after restarting my Chromebook I have to manually start Linux from the terminal. Is it possible to have it started automatically when my Chromebook boots up?

  • Avast Contact Support Says:

    Top solve this just follow some steps which are given below :-
    First, return to the developer shell interface by using the following keyboard shortcut: CTRL+ALT+T.

    Type shell at the crash prompt and press Enter.

    The chronos@localhost prompt should now be displayed. Type the following syntax: sudo startxfce4 then press Enter

    Enter your encryption password and passphrase, if prompted.

    Your Ubuntu desktop should now be visible and ready for use.
    For any Help visit

  • Will Steen Says:

    Linux on Chromebook , hey hey mama said the way you move, gonna make you sweat gonna make you groove ...

  • chase Says:

    the word shell dose not work what do i do???

  • freddievega Says:

    I also am having a problem that in the end of the long code thread it says failed to decrypt xenial

  • Zachary Says:

    Whenever I try to type shell into the terminal it says it's an unknown command. Any suggestion?

  • (again woah) Simon Says:

    the internet on linux looks bad, yikes. so im trying to get firefox. i downloaded it, but i don't know what to do from there.

    also my name isn't actually simon lol

  • (again) Simon Says:

    so i did it. i think the reason why it said "Sorry, try again." for me was because when i typed in the passwords, they didn't show anything and i got scared, so i got the keyboard that shows up in the screen and typed in the password.

    basically, if nothing shows up when you typed your password, don't worry. it's still there.

  • Simon Says:

    um ok but why does it say "sorry, try again"

  • Justin Waldner Says:

    everything works up until i need to enter the first new password in the terminal. instead of asking me to verify, if simply says "sorry, try again."

  • Dean Harkness Says:

    Mine says shell is an unknown command?

  • Luke Southam Says:

    The problem seems to lie in the encryption of the croot?

    I'm guessing I need to rerun this and leave out the -e?

  • Luke Southam Says:

    I followed everything to the letter, but once I got to entering encryption passphrase for denial, it just says failed to decrypt xenial

  • Gbenga Oyeniyi Says:

    My Chromebook did a background update now it’s not working as it use to how can I back date it or restore the previous OS?

  • JuanSoto Says:

    Good & clear write-up on the process. It certainly provides ChromeOS with much needed Desktop-style flexibility and power. I've looked at Chromebooks in the past as a means of running Linux on them.

    I still prefer either dual-booting or simply wiping ChromeOS from these dedicated laptops. It's a matter related to the spyware business Google and other (mostly) commercial OS-makers engage in. I just can't be a knowing party to it.

  • drhiii Says:

    Howdie, I installed Ubuntu via these instructions and it has worked great,. Except, if I let the Chromebook powerdown, and then try to reboot into Ubuntu, it will boot into Ubuntu by default BUT networking, a terminal shell, none of these work. It seems like I have to leave the Chromebook running all the time for it to stay in the installed mode. If I let it power down, nothing works from that point forward. I can uninstall and go back to Chromebook default, then reinstall Ubuntu, and things will work again. But I can't keep reinstalling to get Ubuntu. Anyone have any ideas how to get networking, terminal, and other core apps working after a full working install of Ubuntu? I have tried to boot and get to a shell so I can reissue a command that appears to change the boot to a different 'boot partition', and I know that is not the right language. But I cannot find a way to reissue a command to boot back into Chrome, much less get Ubuntu working after having the HP Chromebook powering down all the way. I will keep reading as this has to be a common thing, but.... help???

  • Bruno Says:


    How to uninstall Ubuntu and retreive the full partition for chromeos, please ?

  • Gustavo Cardoso Says:


    Thank you so much for your help, I followed all the steps and apparently the system is installed.

    However I still getting Chrome OS and not ubuntu as it should be, do you have any idea what I should do?

    Just a little tip, in the code: curl -L -O; sudo bash s9ryd

    There is a fault, apparently the right code is:
    curl -L -O; sudo bash s9ryd

    Thank you so much!

  • ChromeShine Says:

    Just got a Toshiba 13.3" Chromebook. Pretty cool little laptop and a clean OS. I find no reason to change a thing from the Chrome OS.

    I do have Ubuntu on an older hp laptop - it's fine too. There is nothing really so great however about it as compared to the new Chrome OS. But then again I like to try them all out -- even the misadventures with Win 8 :o

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